The federal government determines the value of legal tender. Fiat money is a term that refers to printed money that has no intrinsic value. Depending on its physical composition, a $20 bill has no more value than a $1 bill. Its value comes from the Federal Reserve. Legal tender also allows monetary policy. From the issuer`s perspective, legal tender allows the issuer to manipulate, devalue and devalue the currency to obtain seigniorage and facilitates the issuance of escrow media by the banking system to meet trading needs. In the absence of legal tender laws, Gresham`s law would make monetary policy, seigniorage, currency manipulation, and fiat media spending much more difficult, as good money in this case tends to drive out bad money. In 1964, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act stipulated that only notes issued by the Reserve Bank were legal tender. The Act also ended the right of individuals to redeem their banknotes for coins, thereby eliminating the distinction between coins and banknotes in New Zealand. The Act came into force in 1967 and established as legal tender all banknotes of five dollars in New Zealand dollars and above, all decimal coins, predecimal pence, shilling and guilder. The Decimal Currency Act, which created the basis for a decimal currency introduced in 1967, was also passed in 1964.
You may have wondered why businesses sometimes refuse to accept payments in large bank notes such as the $100 bill or payments exclusively in small coins such as pennies, since cash and coins are legal tender. Indeed, federal law leaves individuals and businesses free to issue their own guidelines on the forms of payment they accept, subject to state law. Conspiracy theorists often argue that modern legal tender is worthless and that the global economy is built on a lie. While it is true that legal tender is no longer backed by something like gold, the country`s continued economic growth makes our monetary system self-validating. The value of the dollar is not a lie, but a legal fiction that reflects economic reality. Council Regulation (EC) No 974/98 limits the number of coins that may be offered for payment to fifty.  The governments issuing the coins must establish the euro as the sole legal tender. Due to the different legal meanings of the term `legal tender` in different Member States and the possibility for contract law to prevail over legal tender, it is possible for traders to refuse to accept euro banknotes and coins in certain euro area countries (the Netherlands, Germany, Finland and Ireland). National legislation may also impose restrictions on the maximum amounts that can be paid per coin or banknote. As of 2005, banknotes were legal tender for all payments, and $1 and $2 coins were legal tender for payments up to $100, and 10c, 20c and 50c silver coins were legal tender for payments up to $5. These old silver coins were legal tender until October 2006, after which only the new 10c, 20c and 50c coins introduced in August 2006 remained legal.  Cryptocurrencies are not considered money (i.e. accepted for use) in most parts of the world because they are not legal tender. However, El Salvador was the first country in the world to accept Bitcoin as legal tender in June 2021. Although the Reserve Bank Act 1959 and the Currency Act 1965 stipulate that Australian notes and coins are legal tender, Australian notes and coins do not necessarily have to be used in transactions, and refusing to accept payments as legal tender is not illegal. It appears that a service provider is free to determine the commercial conditions under which payment is made before the conclusion of the “contract” of the supply or service. If a supplier of goods or services specifies other means of payment before the contract is concluded, there is generally no obligation to accept legal tender as payment. This is the case even if it is an existing debt. However, refusing to accept legal tender to settle an existing debt if no other means of payment/settlement has been determined in advance could have consequences in legal proceedings.   Since 1st January 2002 euro banknotes and coins have been legal tender in most euro area countries. Although one side of the coins is used for different national marks for each country, all banknotes and coins are legal tender throughout the euro area. Although some euro area countries do not put 1 cent and 2 cent coins into general circulation (prices in these countries are generally considered to be rounded to a full multiple of 5 cents), 1 cent and 2 cent coins from other euro area countries are still legal tender in these countries. In the case of coins with a face value greater than $10, a payment is legal tender only for the value of a single coin of that value. Where, by virtue of one or more obligations, several sums are payable by one person to another on the same day, the sum of those sums is deemed to be due and payable on that date. On the other hand, unlimited legal tender accepts money as payment, up to any amount. As a rule, in such cases, the beneficiaries offer banknotes as payment for the clearing of any amount. G-Sec, treasury bills, stocks, bonds, letters of demand, checks, ATMs, cards, casino coins, bitcoins, and movie star currency are not fiat currency. These are therefore not legally authorised offers. On the other hand, commemorative coins are fiat money, but are not legally permitted offerings unless registered for use. On December 11, 2016, the Venezuelan government announced demonetization after inflation of nearly 500% in the country.
The people of the country had 3 days to get rid of the 100 bolivar notes (the most used currency) after the introduction of new notes of higher value. Up to 15. June 2017, there were 7 renewals (one per month) of the legal use of 100 bolivar notes. The 100 bolivar notes were still legal tender as of 30 December 2017. This note is legal tender (literal translation, money in payment of the debt) according to the law. Legal tender makes it possible to send money abroad, settle debts and make public and private payments. In addition, it requires the use of a single currency and allows flexibility in the money supply, which reduces transaction costs.